Saturday, 6 June 2020

MBTI: How to type movie characters in four easy steps - Blade Runner (1982)

I.  Introduction

Typing characters in a movie presents more difficulties than typing in a soap. For one, soaps run for much longer - the average season of a soap such as Bold and the Beautiful runs for 250 episodes at 20 minutes each; in contrast, Blade Runner (1982) clocks in at just over two hours. The shorter length does not leave us with much time to obtain an in-depth picture of a character. In addition, soaps are driven by dialogue, movies for the most part are not: the director's cut of Blade Runner - in which Harrison Ford's voiceover is removed - doesn't have that much dialogue at all. So, for typing characters in Blade Runner, one must rely primarily on visual cues - and that can be a real challenge. 

II. How to type: the four-letter method

Regardless of whether the medium is a film or a TV show, when we type a character, we need to look at through the lens of Jung's four dichotomies: Introversion / Extraversion, Sensing / Intuiting, Thinking / Feeling, and Judging / Perceiving. 

Extraversion / Introversion

Extraversion / Introversion can be determined in a movie character as follows. 

The Extravert will often wears clothes, accessories with bright colours, and the Intuitive, clothes, accessories with somber and muted colours. (This rule doesn't apply when nearly all the characters wear a uniform with the same colours, e.g., the Starfleet uniform in Star Trek). 

The Extravert will talk at length and generally try and take command in a conversation; he is sociable, gregarious, perhaps a little overbearing. He may grin a lot and he generally has an animated facial expression, and clearly displays any interest (or lack of it) in the matter at hand when he is interacting with others. On a set, the actor playing an Extravert character may position himself in the center, or at least the area where he gets the most attention. The environment he habitually dwells in (whether it be home or office) will be brightly lit, like a stage. 

In contrast, the Introvert doesn't talk much; appears socially withdrawn; has a standoffish and stony demeanor; prefers a dark or at least dimly-lit and secluded environment; will unconsciously slink into the shadows and merge into the background when talking to another character... In general, he does not like to be seen. 

With the above in mind, I think it is easy to tell, from these photographs, who is the Extravert, who is the Introvert:

Sensing / Intuiting: 

The chief question here is, how does a character get the information which defines their type? Do they get it through the Senses or Intuition? All characters use either function, but a character - during the brief amount of time that he occupies the screen - will be biased to one over the other. MBTI, at bottom, concerns biases, disproportionalities, in the use of the functions. 

It is dialogue that usually reveals whether a character is a Sensor or Intuitive. 

The Sensor's dialogue consists of line such as, 'It is the case that x', or 'The facts to date show that x, y, z...'. The Sensor, as general rule, abides by appearances: he accepts the world, life, reality, as they are and does not attempt to look past what he sees. 

Intuition is much more complicated. Jung, in the glossary of Psychological Types (1921) defines Intuition as 

That psychological function which transmits perceptions in an unconscious way... Through intuition any one content is presented as a complete whole, without our being able to explain or discover in what way this content has been arrived at. Intuition is a kind of instinctive apprehension... In the same way, the certainty of intuition depends upon a definite psychic matter of fact, of whose origin and state of readiness, however, the subject was quite unconscious. 

In other words, Intuition gives a character information out of left field, nowhere - nowhere in conscious perception, that is. Ideas pop into the head of the Intuitive, without him asking for them, and these ideas can leave either a positive or negative impression. 

In an Intuitive's dialogue, key sentences are about what is not present to the senses. Generally, they involve what will be or could be.

The 'What will be' lines make predictions of something that will happen in the future, good or bad:  'I have a sudden premonition that...'; 'I have a feeling that someone is walking on my grave'; 'X is the wave of the future'; 'X represents progress'; 'Such and such a person is doing well now, but I portend a dire fate for them'. 

The 'What could be' lines represent discoveries of the potential in things - a potential which has little to no connection to what there is in front of us, in the present, in the senses. 'I just had this crazy idea'; 'This presents an intriguing possibility';  'This looks like a good place to make an investment';  'I'm bored with what there is, let's try instead something which is totally unrelated to it';  'When x comes up in the conversation, I'm going to bring up non-sequitur y (as I'm quirky and zany)'. 

The Intuitive tries to get past what is and look behind it - or above it. 'X has always been the case, and will be in the future, forever more'; 'I will explain to you my grand and philosophical overview of existence'; 'What's really going on here, what is the ultimate truth behind the surface appearance?'. 

Two examples of Intuitive behavior in Blade Runner are: when Tyrell unveils the replicant Rachael to Deckard, and makes pronouncements that she represents the wave of the future; and Roy's famous 'Tears in the Rain' speech. 

Thinking / Feeling: 

The difference between the Thinker and Feeler can be reduced to: the Thinker is left-brained, the Feeler, right-brained. 

The Thinker treats others as instruments, tools, and as such, does not pay attention to the rights of the person concerned. Think of Tyrell and Roy, who use others as pieces on a chessboard (and both play chess). As such, the Thinker can be manipulative, immoral, and even cruel. 

A character, if he is a Feeler, will talk and think in sentences such as: 'I value x'; 'X means a lot to me'; 'The right thing to do is y'; 'I feel y'; 'I don't like x'; 'That was an enjoyable (or horrible) experience'... The Feeler is centered on values, meanings, emotions. 

An example of a Feeler character: Leon, who accidentally leaves behind his photographs in his apartment. The photos hold meaning for Leon, whereas to Roy, they represent a sentimental attachment. Another example: Pris, when she meets Sebastian for the first time: one of her lines is, 'We scared each other pretty good, didn't we?', a choice of words which signifies that it is the emotional side of her experience that takes priority. 

Judging / Perceiving: 

This dichotomy pertains to what drives a character and what directs their life. As such, we need to consider a character in his totality.

The Thinking or Feeling function (both Judging) occupies the base, or dominant function slot, of the Judger; the Intuiting or Sensing function (both Perceiving), the base function of the Perceiver. (Here I go by Jung's definitions of what a Judger and a Perceiver are - MBTI takes a different view). 

A Judger, according to Jung, has a preconceived view of the world and way of going about things. He follows a protocol which has been carefully worked out before he encounters reality. If he is a Thinker and a Judger, he works by a method which emphasises systems of organisation; if he is a Feeler and a Judger, he puts on a pedestal values, ethics, customs, what is the right thing to do in such and such circumstances and what values should take precedent.  

Are Judging characters judgmental? In theory, they shouldn't be, but in practice, they almost always are. The Judger believes very strongly in how things ought to be, and if he is an Extravert, he will tell you what he believes, at tedious length, and moreover, he will attempt to force you to adopt his belief-system. 

What of the Judgers who are Introverts? Seeing as Introvert characters do not talk that much, we need to look at the overall picture and what it is that the character does with most of his screen time. In the case of Deckard, if we are to step back, we see that methods, systems of organisation dominate; in the case of Rachael, value-judgments. Rachael experiences strong feelings of attraction and repulsion which, as we can see right away, manifest themselves behind a cold, disconcerting and mask-like facial expression, and these feelings would be defined by Jung as value-judgments. And she does this judging all throughout the movie. 

The Perceiver, says Jung, is irrational - that is, he does not have a worked-out world view, an agenda, and he takes things as they are. He uses his Perceiving function - the Senses or Intuition - to discover information about the world and then he works with it and allows it to define his life. The Perceiving function could be compared to a probe; or to use another analogy, a surfboard with which the character rides the waves of life. 

Neither Pris nor Zhora have any agenda, any mission, to bestow on the world. They structure their lives around the information they gather. And what is that information? Socionics defines Extraverted Sensing (Se) as 'Discrete spatial boundaries that delineate territory and control'. Also, 'Information about spatial territory, ownership, and influence'. This is what makes these characters what they are: volition, force, will, territoriality... They each have an agenda, which is, for Pris, self-expression, for Zhora, survival. But neither character wants to put others into neat little slots, that is, neither of them Judgers (the anthem of the Judging character is 'Everything in its right place' by Radiohead). 

Are Perceivers more flexible and spontaneous than Judgers? This is a common misconception in MBTI and Socionics. Jung describes the Judger as someone who sifts through information, excludes what they don't want and includes what they do want, all in order to make a cohesive whole. Judgers will edit - and even censor. The Perceiver neither edits nor censors, he accepts all of the information he receives. He takes life as it comes, with no fixes or modifications, whereas the Judger is obsessed with fixes and modifications. 

The result of this is that the Perceiver adopts a more hedonistic attitude than the Judger. Admittedly, this can sound strange given that a Perceiving type - the ISTJ - enjoys a reputation as the martinet of MBTI, of being a stickler for rules and regulations. But the dominant function of the ISTJ - Introverted Sensing Si - prizes comfort, continuity, relaxation, quiet, harmony, domesticity, down-homeness... All these can be enjoyed, and the ISTJ likes being in his particular groove, and he looks at the Judging types as people who overexert themselves and make much ado about nothing. The Perceiver, in comparison to the Judger, can appear to be more plugged in into the deepest well-springs of life. He is more 'in the zone', more 'centered'. 

The Perceiver can also seem to be passive and reactive. That sounds strange, as the likes of Pris and Zhora do not strike as passive and reactive: but they are, as they do not seek to take life by the horns and impose a system, an agenda, upon it. They take the attitude 'This is life, let's see what happens'.  

II.  The example of Roy Batty and J.F. Sebastian

Keeping all of the above in mind, we will now type Roy and J.F. 

Extravert or Introvert? 

To anyone who has seen the film, it becomes apparent fairly quickly that Roy is an Extravert: he steals the scene and talks frequently. 

The meek Sebastian feels comfortable in the background, and chooses to dwell in a dark, isolated and quiet apartment.

The scene where Roy, Pris and Sebastian are gathered together in his apartment illustrates the Extravert / Introvert dichotomy the best. Pris and Sebastian engage in highly exhibitionist behavior while bullying Sebastian into setting up a meeting with Tyrell. In response, Sebastian doesn't assert himself, and he appears to melt into the background.  

Roy is an Extravert, an E, Sebastian is an Introvert, an I.  

Intuitive or Sensor? 

Sebastian lives in the present and hardly sees beyond it. Roy, on the other hand, doe see beyond it: he is always looking towards the future - which is a mark of Introverted Intuition (Ni). He lives in a mental world of grandiose visions, absolutes, ideals - see his famous 'Tears in the rain' speech. 

Sebastian: S, a Sensor; Roy: N, an Intuitive 

Thinker or Feeler? 

The warm and sentimental Sebastian is a Feeler, the cold and calculating Roy is a Thinker. 

(Roy does show some empathy and understanding on occasion, but overall his instrumentalism - his tendency to view the other as a means, not an end - predominates). 

Sebastian: F, a Feeler; Roy: T, a Thinker. 

Judger or Perceiver? 

Sebastian accepts life as it is, and in fact, takes the evidence of his senses for all that there is. To Roy, life has to be structured: he goes by an elaborate system of protocols, as laid down by his primary function, Te (Extraverted Thinking). Roy is all about organising other people according to a pattern, a plan. 

Sebastian: p, a Perceiver; Roy: j, a Judger. 

Putting it all together

In MBTI, as we know from previous articles, all the Introverted Perceiving types are classified as Judgers, all the Introverted Judging as Perceivers. That reverses Jung's meaning. But I will use the MBTI system here as it is what most of my readers are familiar with. 

In Jung or Socionics, Sebastian would be an Introvert + Sensor + Feeler + Perceiver, or ISFp. In MBTI, he would be an ISFJ. 

Seeing as Roy is an Extravert, Roy's personality type sees no change under the MBTI system. Roy is an ENTj in Socionics, an ENTJ in MBTI. 

III. The characters, in order of appearance

Leon Kowalski: ISFJ

Big, dumb, strong, sentimental, someone who values his family (and to Leon, his fellow replicants are his family) and keeps mementos of them, Leon reminds me a lot of another ISFJ, Colossus from Marvel's X-Men

Rick Deckard: ISTP

ISTP characters in the movies and comic books tend to be assassins, mercenaries, smugglers, bounty hunters, and Deckard is no exception to the rule. 

Like a good many ISTP characters, the hard-drinking Deckard is rough around the edges. 

As mentioned, Deckard uses his primary function - Thinking - all throughout the movie. It is Introverted Thinking (Ti), which reveals underlying systems and patterns. This is best illustrated in the famous 'photo analysis' sequence. And it is also related to Deckard's use of deception and subterfuge to track and get close to his prey. (Deckard pretends to be an agent from a 'Committee for the Prevention of Moral Abuses' when he introduces himself to Zhora, a friend of Sebastian's when he introduces himself to Pris). Deckard knows that he cannot survive a direct confrontation with a replicant, and in both the instances when he loses the initiative in his hunt, first to Leon and then to Roy, he nearly dies. 

Gaff and Bryant: ISTJ and ESTJ

No surprises here. Bryant is the ESTJ police chief, Gaff the faceless ISTJ functionary who lurks in the background and who is rather bland and boring (except for his eccentric hobby of making origami sculptures). 

Rachael: ISFP

Rachael's primary function, Introverted Feeling (Fi), is a Judging one, and makes judgments on the basis of strong feelings of attraction and repulsion (in Rachael's case, mostly repulsion). Jung explains that the Fi-dominant enjoys a tranquil inner life far removed from the disturbances of the outer world. A great intensity exists beneath the Fi-dominant's cold, icy exterior (it's a case of still waters run deep). But when ripples occur on that surface, the Fi-dominant reacts with disgust, aversion, repulsion. 

Gulenko, the Socionist, defines what he calls negative (or minus) Fi as: 

-Fi = minimization of negative relationships. This element is critical of evil. They desire to get away from bad people and poor relationships, and to protect themselves from enemies and adversaries. They want to minimize negative experiences, because as we know from psychoanalysis, all extruded problems are liable to generate an emotional reaction one way or another, with a physical cost...


− Fi - poor relations, hatred, animosity, antipathy, repulsion, indifference in relations, alienation, unsociability, remote psychological distance, wickedness, mercilessness

The above describes Rachael perfectly. And it should be noted that all the attributes of -Fi can be observed in Rachael in her first five minutes on the screen. 

Dr Eldon Tyrell: ENTJ

Extraverted thinking (Te) makes up the dominant function of the brilliant tycoon / scientist Tyrell, and this is a particular kind of Te as defined in the aforementioned Gulenko article, what he calls negative (or minus) Te: 

-Te = business logic of risk and entrepreneurship... − Te - useless, unprofitable, wasteful, utilization, deterioration, exhaustion, costs, expenses, risk-taking, experimentation, sales, trade, action in atmosphere of chaos, ingenuity

In other words, the type that values -Te is prepared to lose money to make money, to take risks, to stake all on one particular gamble. Tyrell builds an empire through what is in essence a risky enterprise: manufacturing replicants. That, combined with his secondary function Introverted Intuition Ni, makes the ENTJ character a visionary and a daredevil. 

Roy Batty: ENTJ

Roy gives us an instance of the NTJ (that is, ENTJ or INTJ) villain stock type - the NTJ master planner and manipulator. The two functions Te and Ni lend themselves to organisation (and manipulation) over the long term. 

Unlike an INTJ character, Roy, a typical ENTJ villain, exudes charisma and charms others. He performs the role of the charming rogue (much like that other ENTJ bad guy, Gul Dukat from Star Trek: Deep Space Nine). A natural leader, Roy uses his dominant function Te to wield power and make an impression, but unlike the other Te-dominant type, the ESTJ, he is off-beat, eccentric and unpredictable - he is not a force for stability like the ESTJ.  

In his encounter with Tyrell, Roy engages in a discussion of the science of replicant life and death - a discussion which is pedantic, and amusingly so. Both Tyrell and Roy are Te dominants, and the conversation between them illustrates, as Jung points out, how mind-numbing Te science can be. 

J.F. Sebastian: ISFJ

Friendly, kind, hospitable, empathetic, Sebastian meets the fate of many an ISFJ character: he is used and abused. Others, most notably Tyrell and Roy, take advantage of his kindness and meekness. 

Interestingly, Socionics describes the relationship between the ISFJ and the ENTJ as one of Conflict. Both Tyrell and Roy are ENTJs. 

The two main functions of the ISFJ, Extraverted Feeling and Introverted Sensing, can combine to make a beautiful and comfortable home environment. Sebastian does this with his apartment. 

Pris: ESFP

At first when we see Pris, she is homeless, alone, and tries to hide herself under a pile of garbage. From that we can deduce that she is probably an Introvert, but in this we are mistaken, as her first scenes do not actually reflect her true temperament. We only get to know the real her once she is inside Roy's apartment, paints her face to look like a doll or clown, and performs exhibitionist feats. It is then that she recalls Harley Quinn, another ESFP. 

Zhora: ESTP

In the ESTP, the two main functions are Ti, Introverted Thinking, and Se, Extraverted Sensing: how do they work together? In the case of Zhora, her sensing function makes her cynical and blunt; her thinking, calculating and deadly. Like Deckard, she knows how to use deception, and where and when to apply a blow where it hurts the most. (I am referring to the scene where she tricks Deckard and lulls him into a false sense of security - at one point he turns his back on her to go through her wardrobe - and then she knocks him to the floor and strangles him). 

IV.  In conclusion: what sort of film? 

In Blade Runner, certain types preponderate. We have Deckard, Rachael, Zhora, Pris - four type that Keirsey calls Artisans. Behind them stand two Rationals, Batty and Tyrell, and four Guardians, Gaff, Bryant, Leon and Sebastian. Of the Idealists - NFJs and NFPs - there are none. So what does this mean? Should we consider Blade Runner to be an Artisan film or a Guardian film, given that there are more Artisan and Guardian characters than Rationals and Idealists? 

Socionics classifies groups of types differently: it thinks in terms of Quadras. Interestingly, four out of the nine Blade Runner characters belong to the Gamma Quadra: Rachael (ISFP), Pris (ESFP), Tyrell (ENTJ), Roy (ENTJ). The surrogate father and daughter pair, Tyrell and Rachael, relate to one another as Duals

The implication of this is that Blade Runner may be considered a Gamma movie. I suggest you read Gulenko's article, linked above, and make up your own mind. 

Saturday, 11 April 2020

MBTI / Socionics: The 16 types in Star Trek: Voyager (1995-2001)


With Star Trek: Voyager (1995-2001), we come to the third instalment of our Star Trek MBTI series. I only managed to find 14 of the 16 MBTI types in Voyager (I'll leave it up to the reader to work out for himself which are the missing). 

Here in this piece I will type the Voyager crew first, organised into what Socionics calls Quadras. The ten members of the crew account for eight of the sixteen types, the supporting characters the remaining six. 

My previous post explains some of my methodology. Here I must insert my standard disclaimer regarding Judging and Perceiving types. In Socionics, and Jung's theory, if it is a Perceiving function which plays the role of the main or primary function of a type, then that type is called a Perceiver; if is a Judging function, then that type is called a Judger. That makes sense, and one would think the founders of MBTI, who follow Jung, would retain Jung's designation. But MBTI uses a different definition of 'Perceiver' and 'Judger', the result of which is that the Introverts who are Judgers in Socionics / Jung are turned into Perceivers, and the Introverts who are Perceivers, Judgers. 

Nevertheless, throughout this post, I will use the MBTI notation, as that is what most of my readers are familiar with. 


I presume that my readers here have watched all of Voyager, but if not, I warn them that some minor spoilers are ahead. 

The Voyager Crew

Harry Kim - ISFJ

The quiet, unobtrusive ISFJ personality type usually stays in the background. This is true of Harry Kim, who is forever relegated to a secondary role. Even in the 'Captain Proton' holodeck fantasies of Tom Paris - which Harry goes along with - Harry plays the part of Captain Proton's sidekick Buster Kincaid.

Typically, the ISFJ character winds up being the doormat, and can be exploited, even abused, by the other personality types, who may never take his needs into consideration.

Harry comes under the wing of his friend Tom Paris, who, being a more self-confident and upwardly-mobile person, frequently derides Harry for his lack of ambition. Another ISFJ, Worf, from Star Trek: Next Generation is frequently castigated (by his fellow Klingons) for the same shortcoming. Si-dominant types like to stay where they are. 

Tom Paris - ESTP

In the person of Tom Paris, we have a stock ESTP character: the charming, attractive used-car salesman ESTP, the ESTP who is forceful and larger than life, the ESTP who is erratic and lacking in scruples. An ESTP like Tom Paris forms a vivid contrast with an ISFJ like Harry Kim. Extraverted Sensing Se, as a function, thrusts itself forth, and in the ESTP, it lends itself to the pursuit of social climbing - that is, Se wants to go places whereas Si wants to sit still.

Tom grows as a person throughout the series, but he never ends up in a romantic relationship with (what Socionics calls) his Dual. The closest he comes to 'Dualisation' is with the next character...

Kes - INFJ

Is Kes the archetypal INFJ? A quiet, mousey character (Introvert); a character with precognitive / telepathic powers (Intuitive); an empathic character who cares for the welfare of those around her (Feeler)...

Is Kes a Judger or a Perceiver? A Perceiver uses his main function as a probe which uncovers information about life, or as a vehicle, perhaps a surfboard with which he rides the waves of life, so to speak. (This metaphor has relevance to the matter at hand: the Silver Surfer  is an INFJ and therefore a Perceiver). For the Perceiver, the Perceiving function, whose job it is to present a world-picture to oneself, determines the actions of a character. In the case of Kes, it is a Perceiving function (Intuition) that gives her strange, dark visions of the future which force her to leave the Voyager and then return to try and destroy it.

Extraverted Sensing (Se) makes up the flip side of the INFJ's main function Introverted Intuition (Ni). That means that the INFJ can, especially when stressed, manifest his Se and become aggressive, forceful, and even destructive. The repressed Se bursts forth in Kes in her later appearances, and in this, she reminds me of Raven of the New Teen Titans, who is another INFJ.

Chakotay - ISFP

The strong, silent type (Introvert, Sensor) who has a strong sense of ethics and values which comes before all else (Feeler), Chakotay brings to my mind another ISFP character, the Fantastic Four supporting cast member Wyatt Wingfoot. Both Chakotay and Wingfoot are Native American Indian, and I suspect that the writers of Voyager partly modelled Chakotay on Wingfoot. This is not so unusual, as many screenwriters have shown signs of dipping into the Marvel and DC mythos for inspiration.

The inferior function of the ISFP is Extraverted Thinking (Te), and in Socionics, the ISFP wants to be around a type which has Te as its main function, a type which is the ISFP's Dual. In one episode, Chakotay is paired up with the ISFP's Dual, the ENTJ (as I will detail later). But for most of the episodes we see Chakotay form a friendship (bordering on romantic relationship) with his Semi-Dual , Kathryn Janeway).

B'Elanna Torres - ESFP

The temperamental half-human, half-Klingon embodies pure force - the mark of an Extraverted Sensing (Se) dominant. Unlike the other Se-dominant in the Voyager Crew, Tom Paris, her personality type is more grounded in the right brain than the left, and it is that makes her a Feeler, not a Thinker.

One may think that B'Elanna's being an engineer contradicts this: don't all scientists and technicians fall on the left-brain side of the spectrum? But every member of a star ship crew is trained in applied science. It is a character's preference that determines whether or not the character is a Feeler or a Thinker, F or T, and not his occupation. And B'Elanna is more inclined to Feeling than Thinking. That is, value-judgements, emotions and meanings, count more to her than systems of organisation.

Kathryn Janeway - ESTJ

If you read the profile of the Extraverted Thinking (Te) dominant in Jung's Psychological Types (1921), you'll recognise the hard and brassy Kathryn Janeway. One of the most interesting aspects of Janeway is that as the series progresses, Janeway develops her Introverted Feeling Fi. (MBTI would call Fi her Inferior Function; Socionics would call it her Suggestive). Socionics believes that a type can attain self-actualisation by embracing his Suggestive Function. And this is what Janeway does.

Here the Socionist Gulenko describes the ESTJ's type of Fi:

+Fi = positive, warm relationships. Psychological factors play a vital role for them. Without recognition of ethical values such as individuality and the uniqueness of others, religion and spirituality, non-interference in others lives, concrete humanism, etc., the stability they strongly desire is hardly possible.


Fi - good relations, love, friendship, affection, attraction, warmth in relations, sociability, close psychological distance, goodness, compassion;

We see this best in the episodes 'Alliances' (Season Two, 1996) and 'The Void' (Season Seven, 2001). The latter, a remarkable episode, illustrates how Fi can uplift morals and build co-operation. As the founder of Socionics, Ausra Augustina, says of Fi:

 [Fi] includes feelings of like and dislike, love and hatred, the desire to obtain some thing/object, etc., and greed or the absence of greed. The higher feelings of this kind can be called ethical, because relationships between people's needs are mainly regulated by ethical [norms].

Tuvok - ISTJ

Tuvok has been compared to Spock, another ISTJ. Tuvok, a typical ISTJ, prizes comfort, quiet, contemplation, continuity above all else. These are the qualities of Introverted Sensing (Si), the ISTJ's dominant function.

The ISTJ's secondary function, Extraverted Thinking (Te), denotes order, regularity,  and the accumulation and organisation of data. We can see how the two functions of Si and Te interact in Spock, Data, Tuvok and other instances of the ISTJ.

Extraverted Intuition Ne stands in relation to Si at the other end of the function axis or pole. Does Tuvok, like Janeway, develop his Suggestive or Inferior Function? In the episode 'Riddles' (Season Six, 1999), Tuvok is forced by circumstances to bring his repressed Ne to the fore. He becomes zany, playful, creative, at the prompting of his Dual, Neelix, an ENFP.

Seven of Nine and the Doctor - ISTJ

Both of these two characters represent two different sides of the ISTJ type. Socionics calls these aspects the sub-type. To explain: Introverted Sensing Si forms the leading function of the ISTJ, Extraverted Thinking TE the secondary, but the theory of the subtype posits that a type is a little more inclined to one function more than the other. My interpretation is that the Doctor prefers his Te a little more than his Si, and Seven, conversely.

Here is a description of the Te-subtype of the ISTJ which describes the Doctor perfectly:

The logical subtype is impatient and active, loves frequent changes and new impressions. Industrious, hardworking, and very caring. His behavior is unpredictable and characterized by unexpected transitions from aloof contemplation to expedient activity. He keeps at a certain distance from people, closed off, at times overly direct and inconsiderate in conversation. Very independent and proud, acts as he wishes. In conversation he is often waspish and ironic, but becomes amiable and concerned if he feels sympathy and respect for his conversation partner. Noticing that he has offended someone, regrets it and softens in communication, tries to turn everything into a joke, or may even apologize or try to calm the person down. Behind his external inaccessibility he is quite impressionable and vulnerable. Dislikes lack of comfort in all of its manifestations; thus strives to repair, adjust, and adapt everything for greatest convenience. Reliable and punctual, demanding of himself and of others. Holds himself with cold dignity, but sometimes can be emotional. His gestures are impulsive, confident, resolute. His gait is quick and measured.

And here is a description of the 'somewhat proud and haughty' Si-subtype, which pegs Seven of Nine:

The sensory subtype is undemonstrative, discreet, and considerate, but also obstinate and uncompromising in defending his opinions and interests. He supports his position rationally, with factual information, rather than with thought-up or assumed accounts. Diligent, laborious, patient and persistent in his work and studies. If some project captures his interest, he will tirelessly try to improve his results, both intellectual and material. At times he needs a change of occupation, but he tries to bring previous work to completion. From time to time he becomes contemplative, withdraws into himself, distances from his social circle in order to submerge into his own issues.

Somewhat stiff in dialogue, may be laconic, but tries to be good-natured if he feels tensions arise in interaction. Prefers items that are original and of good quality yet simple and unpretentious. Pays attention to his health, appearance, and figure, tries to dress tastefully. Aesthete, enjoys handcrafted items. His movements and gestured tend to be gracefully lazy, fluid, and at the same time confident and precise. His gait is a little lax, elastic. He dislikes hurrying, but at the same time he is not slow. Seems somewhat proud and haughty.

Neelix - ENFP

When we first meet Neelix, he is engaged in scavenging debris in space. He tells another character, 'You don't understand the opportunities in sifting through garbage'. This shows the ENFP's dominant function, Extraverted Intuition Ne, at play:

Extroverted Intuition (Ne, Ne)

IEEs [ENFPs] are predominantly motivated by their feelings of interest and boredom. They are attracted to novel ideas, unusual or peculiar goings-on in day-to day life, and new experiences. They may have a tendency to frequently engage themselves in novel life "projects," which can and often consist of novel concepts or fields of thought, new activities, and new lifestyles (this list is not all-inclusive). These types of projects often take the form of activities that are uncommon, concepts that are unknown or avocations that have not been done or tried before. Regardless of the nature of their interests, they often have a tendency to try to accumulate as much knowledge about the field as they can, and sometimes to improve the field by finding new ways of conceptually framing its basic principles (needs an example). Eventually, once there is nothing left to discover, or when they simply become bored, they will follow their curiosity and find a new topic of interest.

Many IEEs require a certain degree of freedom from obligation in order to do their work and pursue their sometimes idiosyncratic interests, to the point where they may dramatically eschew conventional lifestyles. Some IEEs may have an irrational dread of working at a desk job or an office where they do not have the opportunity to pursue their whimsical hobbies.

The above profile of the ENFP gives an excellent description of Neelix.

I call the ENFP character the 'chameleon', as he is continually adapting to his environment and changing his appearance accordingly. (ENFPs could be accused of adapting too much, and having little fixed sense of their own selves). Neelix continually changes his role throughout the series, working as a morale officer, chef, diplomat, and so forth. 

ENFP characters charm and make themselves liked, and this offsets to me what are their annoying traits. I must confess that a tear came to my eye during Neelix's farewell ceremony from the Voyager: up to that point, I had never realised how much I appreciated him. 

Other characters

Ma'Bor Jetrel - INTP

Appears in the episode 'Jetrel' (1995), Season One

A Haakonian scientist who devises a nuclear-type weapon which is used against Neelix's people (the Talaxians) and kills hundreds of thousands of them, Jetrel is clearly modeled on the inventor of the atomic bomb, the nuclear physicist J. Robert Oppenheimer. Like Oppenheimer, Jetrel is an INTP, and like Oppenheimer, he is wracked with guilt for his part in causing death and destruction.

The INTP type in the Star Trek series comes across as cold, introverted, ascetic, and somewhat odd, and he is always a brilliant and creative scientist. Introverted Thinking Ti gives the INTP an appetite for discovering universal laws, Extraverted Intuition Ne, for exploring unusual possibilities.

Jaffen - ESFJ

Appears in the episodes 'Work Force' parts one and two (2001), Season Seven

A Norvalen engineer, Jaffen is a decent, down to earth, plain-spoken, two-fisted, blue-collar worker who is courteous and considerate of others around him. Like a good many ESFJ male characters, Jaffen evokes the archetype (or TV 'trope') of the All-American Dad: extraverted, earthy, humble and a communitarian or collectivist by instinct who puts his family first. Usually the ESFJ male character makes a wonderful father.

I waited a long time for an ESFJ character to appear in Voyager - all the way to season seven - and by then I had almost given up hope.

Crell Moset - ENTP

Appears in the episode 'Nothing Human' (1998), Season Five

Crell Moset, a Cardassian scientist, is resurrected by the Voyager's resident physician, The Doctor, as a hologram. Seeing as the two are holograms, the pair get along famously. Then the Doctor discovers that the original Moset performed evil experiments on Bajorians, and he ends their friendship and deletes Moset's record.

I always felt that Moset was unfairly treated: it was never proven beyond a doubt that the original Moset had committed these terrible crimes (the hologram Moset claimed to have no knowledge of them), and besides which, a copy - and hologram Moset was a copy - should not be held responsible for the crimes, real or alleged, of the original.

The ENTP mad scientist type is garrulous, inventive, and often charming and charismatic. He also defies conventional morality and can appear to be insensitive and unfeeling. Socionics explains why. Firstly, Introverted Feeling Fi can be found sitting in the Vulnerable Function space of the ENTP: that is, Fi - which is really about morals and empathy - will be lacking in the stock ENTP type. Secondly, Introverted Intuition Ni stands in the ENTP's Ignoring Function space. That is, absolutes and principles, scrupulously adhered to by the Ni-dominant type, are ignored, shoved aside, by the ENTP.

Annorax - ENTJ

Appears in episodes 'Year in Hell' parts one and two (1997), Season Four

A brilliant scientist from Krenim, Annorax invents a weapon which changes history, all in order to boost the fortunes of the fading Krenim empire, but in the process kills his wife. He then sets about - with the aid of his crew on his spaceship - continually altering history over and over in the hope of restoring the empire to greatness and his family to life.

Annorax, a ruthless starship captain and organisational man, fits Jung's depiction of the Extraverted Thinking Te-dominant.

It is the secondary function - Ni, or Introverted Intuition - that makes a Te-dominant an ENTJ. Organisational prowess is combined with the ability to see the future and work with it. Annorax literally manipulates time.

Interestingly, Annorax forms a bond with Chakotay, who is his Dual in Socionics - Chakotay being an ISFP.

Seska - INTJ

Seska joins the Voyager crew as a member of the Maquis, the resistance group which opposes the Cardassian occupation of Bajor, and she first appears in the guise of a Bajorian, but, in a dramatic twist, is revealed to be a Cardassian agent who has been surgically modified to look Bajorian. Thereafter, the scheming Seska becomes an enemy of the Voyager crew.

Why do INTJ characters make such good villains? The dominant function of the INTJ, Introverted Intuition Ni, gives the INTJ the ability to see the future, and the secondary function, Extraverted Thinking Te, the ability to organise for that future. So the INTJ character comes across as effective schemer and manipulator. In addition, the INTJ's vulnerable function, Extraverted Feeling Fe, means that they cannot feel part of a group and form emotional bonds with that group. That means, in effect, that they shun the crowd - and the family unit - and feel detached, reserved from it. All this adds up to the loner INTJ, who, if not careful, will use the gifts of Ni and Te for evil and not good.

Dr Riley Frazier - INFP

Appears in the episode 'Unity' (1997), Season Three

Frazier, a human Starfleet officer, is assimilated by the Borg but manages to de-assimilate with a number of other Borg and escape the Borg collective. These ex-Borg, under Frazier's leadership, form a sort of hippie commune - 'The Co-Operative' - which is discovered by Chakotay, who initially believes that Frazier is fully human and only learns later, to his horror, that they are part-Borg. Over time, he becomes sympathetic to Frazier and and her objective of freeing members of the Borg and helping them regain their humanity.

I think of Frazier as the archetypal INFP: the INFP character will often pursue freedom and self-actualisation, and values these above all else. At the same time, the INFP character will want to set the world to rights. Frazier acts in accordance with the INFP's dominant function, Introverted Feeling Fi, as described in the section above on Kathryn Janeway.

Mark Hootsen, Signing Off.